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从学术研究走向市场举动的元影戏

文|刘南豆

把 " 拍影戏 " 这件事拍成一部影戏,已经开始成为越来越多影戏的选材。这个概念在学界被称为元影戏。

元影戏不是一个新鲜的词语了,比元宇宙火起来早得多。不论是影戏史讲义里的那些名字,还是正在拍片的影戏新人,都有各自出现元影戏的欲望与方式。

近来上映的《银河写手》,是去年几个影戏节里的 " 爆款 ",也是一部元影戏,陈诉的是一群无名编剧的北漂故事。截至毒眸发稿前,影片票房约 350 万,豆瓣评分 7.1。显然,影展中的火热气氛未能传导到市场端。

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《银河写手》(图源:豆瓣)

这是近几年绝大部分元影戏在市场遭受冷遇的缩影。从 2020 年的《一秒钟》开始,到去年的《永安镇故事集》《造梦之家》《红毯先生》等等,不论是否有明星出演,不论导演巨细,仿佛只要是讲影戏行业的事就很难引起观众的兴趣。

元影戏受冷落的背后不只是创作问题,更是一个值得被研究的产业问题。它反映的是影戏本体对观众的吸引力在不断减弱,这里既包罗以深度影迷为核心受众的艺术影戏,也包罗以普通观众为核心受众的范例片。

这种减弱不是靠营销层面对乐成案例的模仿就能缓解的,它是院线市场长期供给失衡,观众失去观影惯性所导致的结构性问题。

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从学术到产业

作为一个学术概念,元影戏(metacinema)已经有些老掉牙了。

这个术语最先出现在朱迪斯与梅恩在 1975 年发表的论文《元影戏的意识形态》中,比它更早出现的还有元戏剧、元小说等。

但影戏从业者对元影戏概念的实践比学术研究来得还要早。如 1963 年费里尼的《八又二分之一》和 1973 年特吕弗的《日以作夜》,是许多学者论及元影戏时无法绕开的核心案例。前者是将一个拍片不顺的导演脑海中的焦虑,具象化地出现出来;后者陈诉了一个缭乱的剧组,导演一边要调和演员之间的关系,一边还要坚持自己的创作主旨。

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《八又二分之一》《日以作夜》(图源:豆瓣)

影戏史上对元影戏的实验难以计数,但绝大部分时候是服务于自我表达和艺术实验的,所以这很难解释它这些年在当代影戏工业中的盛行。

这一盛行是全球不谋而合的——不同的导演理由不一样,但喜欢拍元影戏的表象是一致的。

2017 年,詹姆斯 · 弗兰科的《劫难艺术家》试图还原一部影史经典烂片《房间》的制作过程,一下子把一部烂片拉升到了可以在影展获奖的水准。2019 年,昆汀的《好莱坞往事》上映,为观众还原了一个好莱坞的黄金年代,当中的迷影桥段之多堪称 " 影迷届的高考 "。到 2022 年,达米恩 · 查泽雷的 " 精力续作 "《巴比伦》上映,再度成为影迷盛宴。

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《好莱坞往事》(图源:豆瓣)

美国市场之外,好比日本导演上田慎一郎拍摄的《照相机不要停!》,在 2018 年用 300 万日元的成本最终搏得了 2 亿元票房。影片陈诉的是一群拍僵尸片的人,突然被化身成僵尸的工作职员攻击,导演一边逃跑一边把求之不得的画面拍摄下来。

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《照相机不要停》(图源:豆瓣)

回到国内,相对明白掀起影戏工业中元影戏风潮的,应当是张艺谋 2020 年上映的《一秒钟》,该片被普遍认为是张艺谋 " 给影戏的情书 "。

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《一秒钟》(图源:豆瓣)

到 2021 年,《扬名立万》成为最大票房黑马,用几千万的成本撬动了 9.26 亿的票房,将近 100 万人在豆瓣打出 7.4 分的评价。不外,当时对《扬名立万》的讨论更多范围在 " 脚本杀影戏 " 如许的时兴概念上(点此阅读:《< 满江红 > 之后," 脚本杀影戏 " 靠谱吗?》),没有将其视作反映影戏行业的表达。

从去年到本年以来,国内院线能看到的元影戏迎来了真正的大爆发。一边是名导开始回溯自己的导演生活,做出半自传性质的元影戏,如斯皮尔伯格的《造梦之家》、宁浩的《红毯先生》等。另一边是青年导演开始集中通过元影戏的方式来发泄怀才不遇的苦闷,除了正在上映的《银河写手》之外,还有诸如魏书钧的《永安镇故事集》、马凯的《了不得的夜晚》等等。

于是,元影戏除了被当作陈旧的学术命题对待之外,也成了一个值得探讨的产业命题。

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自我表达大于贸易预期

上海大学上海影戏学院教授程波曾在文章中指出," 所谓‘元’,是一种被强化了的‘我’的表达。"

这句话一语道破了元影戏的本质——借 " 关于影戏的影戏 " 的情势做非常强烈的自我表达。即便是那些按范例片法则创作的元影戏,自我表达在其中也同样浓烈。

理解了这一点便也不难意识到为何中外巨细导演都开始对元影戏趋之若鹜。对大导而言,生活已不缺 " 证实自己本领 " 的作品,而可以写一写 " 给影戏的情书 " 以作某种调度;对新人导演而言,除了对影戏项目难以成行的行业现状发泄不满之外,元影戏制片成本相对可控的上风,也让它成为了新人导演需要打响行业影响力时性价比颇高的 " 拍门砖 "。

好比《永安镇故事集》,最早要拍的是另一个脚本,剧组筹办工作已经接近完成,但导演和编剧因创作理念不一致而临时难以推进。最终出现了《永安镇故事集》的灵感之后,才临时改拍这个故事。

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《永安镇故事集》(图源:豆瓣)

这和《银河写手》的幕后故事也很像,两位导演原先跑创投、努力推进的也是另一个脚本,苦于迟迟没有效果,才重新创作了《银河写手》的故事,并动手自费拍摄。

不论是大导还是新人导演,共通之处在于,创作元影戏项目时不会对它有过高的贸易预期,因为自我表达的完成是最优先的。

只不外,有时因为影片在一些节展运动中受到盛赞,让部分出品方、宣发方开始对影片的院线体现产生不切现实的期待。但最终的现实还是告诉大家,这大概只是 " 影展特供片 "。

可惜的是,就算预期不高,现实的残酷程度还是超过大部分从业者的想象。元影戏在市场上的 " 扑街 " 程度经常是令人瞠目结舌的。

近两年聊起张艺谋,都是动辄几十亿票房的大片,而《一秒钟》当时仅仅拿到了 1.3 亿,是张艺谋自 2002 年的《英雄》之后,票房最差的一部影戏。固然和影片上映的时间节点也有关系(2020 年 11 月),但观众对该题材的不感冒也是肉眼可见的。

同样,上一部用《头号玩家》在国内狂卷 14 亿票房的斯皮尔伯格,这一部《造梦之家》在国内却仅有 221 万票房。

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《造梦之家》(图源:豆瓣)

《红毯先生》从春节档撤档,重新上映之后到现在也还不足 1 亿票房,连宁浩《疯狂的赛车》票房都比它高。它甚至还不能被完全归因于定档失误,毕竟同样不得当春节档的《我们一起摇太阳》,重新上映之后到现在也已经取得了 1.6 亿票房,题材本身对观众吸引力的差距无法忽视。

魏书钧的《永安镇故事集》票房只有戋戋 323 万,连自己的首作《野马分鬃》都最少有 1176 万。就在不到两个月之后,他的新片《河滨的错误》直接飙升到 3.1 亿,成为文艺片中的票房神话。

同样出身于影戏节的导演马凯,最早的一部《中邪》就包罗一些元影戏的意味,去年交出的院线首作《了不得的夜晚》,也是延续了他所擅长的惊悚范例和元影戏故事,可最终不但票房仅 4690 万,豆瓣评分更是只有 5.5 分。

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《了不得的夜晚》(图源:豆瓣)

数来数去,只有 2021 年上映的《扬名立万》是国内市场的唯一例外。和其它 " 元影戏 " 的差别在于," 拍影戏 " 这件事只是影片一个借力的 " 壳 ",内里的喜剧段落固然不乏影戏行业 " 内部梗 ",但主体故事去掉拍影戏的设定也完全可以建立。

它本质上是一部悬疑、犯罪范例片,而这一直都是国内观众最喜好的范例之一。收割观众好评的核心也是对强权的反抗,这一主旨已经完全离开了影戏人而存在。

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观众不关心影戏

固然在外洋,元影戏也很难收获高额市场回报,不外大部分时候不会差到云云匪夷所思的地步。据 boxofficemojo 数据,《好莱坞往事》《巴比伦》《造梦之家》的全球票房分别位列当年的全球票房第 24、57 和 67 名。

产生这种差距的核心是观众基础。一位研究外洋影戏的博士学者告诉毒眸,在外洋,如果是作为艺术影戏的元影戏,它在产业上也有院线的支持,受众是比较稳固的——固然现在可能是以中老年受众为主。而对于贸易影戏中的元影戏来说,它们大多数出现的都是好莱坞影戏黄金年代的故事,这些故事对外洋观众来说是一种集体记忆,是具有 " 怀旧 " 属性卖点的。

但事变到国内变得不一样了。起首是对于国内的普通观众来说,他们对影戏业普遍是缺乏情怀的。尤其是在履历了疫情对观影习惯的重构之后,现在连 " 一个好看的故事 " 都很难吸引观众,而是需要 " 与我有关 " 的,甚至是具有 " 实用代价 " 的影戏才能驱动购票意愿(点此阅读:《当影戏营销开始 " 打小人 "》)。

元影戏注定很难与观众有关。只管全部影片在宣传口径上都已经不遗余力弱化自己 " 行业自嗨 " 的属性,而去寻找和大众的共鸣点。好比宁浩一直夸大《红毯先生》是一个讲 " 沟通 " 的影戏,而正在上映的《银河写手》也很明显希望向去年的爆款《年会不能停!》靠拢,主打一个给全部打工人解气。

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《红毯先生》(图源:微博)

但说到底,不论是编剧、导演还是大明星,他们的生存都和普罗大众有很大的差异。好比《银河写手》中,张了一(宋木子饰)穿着短袖出门,发现外面已经是冬天了,这是编剧生存的真实常态,但不是朝九晚五的普通观众的生存常态。

如许的 " 圈地自萌 " 也不仅仅发生在影戏行业,现实上任何的 " 行业影戏 " 在国内市场都难求票房,好比去年陈诉记者行业的《不止不休》、陈诉自媒体行业的《热搜》、陈诉出版行业的《二手杰作》,都是标准的中小成本范例片创作,但市场反响平平。

而除了普通观众兴趣寥寥之外,影迷观众的流失同样值得关注。

据灯塔陈诉显示,2019 年高频观影用户(一年内观影 6 次及以上)占比达到 15%,疫情三年内降至 6%,2023 年也仅回升至 10%。

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影迷观众仍然看影戏,但场景不见得在院线。对外洋新映的艺术佳作大概选择线上观影,对国内涌现的新人佳作也可在节展场域完成观影,让院线这个环节的必要性在影迷心中变得十分尴尬。一方面长期未能有高质量艺术佳作供给,有供给时也有可能是删减版本;另一方面新人作品也极有可能提供的观感不佳,消耗影迷信任度。

中国影戏批评学会会长饶曙光曾对毒眸表示,艺术影戏要找到自己的目标观众群体,是需要长线放映的机制的,慢慢去吸引可能喜欢这部影片的观众。

这件事从本年开始才慢慢被院线重新捡起来。好比近来上映的戛纳获奖影片《坠落的审判》,上一部在国内上映的戛纳获奖片还要追溯到 6 年前的《小偷家族》。《枯叶》也于本日官宣引进,该片也是近年来颇具人气的芬兰导演阿基 · 考里斯马基在国内院线上映的首部影片。整个四月影市,已然被一众文艺片所包围,成为惆怅的影迷狂欢月。

如许的供给需要保持,才能重新开始培养影迷群体的观影习惯,国内的小成本文艺片才能有机会取得最少收回成本的票房,才能反过来支持内容创作的多元化。

说到底,元影戏受不受接待,很大程度上体现的就是影戏本身受不受接待。这种不受接待是一种结构性难题,对于当下从业者的唯一启示可能只有:想做自己可以,务必下调市场预期。

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